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    July 24 in History

    1505On their way to India, a group of Portuguese explorers sack the city-state of Kilwa.
    1567Mary, Queen of Scots, is imprisoned and forced to abdicate her throne to her 1-year-old son James VI.
    1701Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac establishes Fort Ponchartrain for France at present-day Detroit, Michigan.
    1704Admiral George Rooke takes Gibraltar from the Spanish.
    1766At Fort Ontario, Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson sign a peace agreement.
    1791Robespierre expels all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution.
    1847The first members of Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) arrive in Utah, settling in present-day Salt Lake City.
    1862The eighth president of the United States, Martin Van Buren, dies at the age of 79.
    1897African-American soldiers of the 25th Infantry Bicycle Corps arrive in St. Louis, Mo., after completing a 40-day bike ride from Missoula, Montana.
    1941The U.S. government denounces Japanese actions in Indochina.
    1942The Soviet city of Rostov is captured by German troops.
    1950The U.S. Fifth Air Force relocates from Japan to Korea.
    1974The Supreme Court rules that President Richard Nixon must surrender the Watergate tapes.

    Born on July 24

    1783Simon Bolivar, South American soldier and statesman.
    1786Jean-Louis Nicollet, French explorer.
    1802Alexandre Dumas, French author (The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers).
    1895Robert Graves, poet and novelist (Goodbye to All That).
    1897Amelia Earhart, aviation pioneer.
    1900Zelda Sayre, writer (Save me the Waltz).
    1916John D. MacDonald, author.
    1920Bella Abzug, the first Jewish woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.