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    July 23 in History

    1627Sir George Calvert arrives in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
    1637King Charles of England hands over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.
    1664Wealthy, non-church members in Massachusetts are given the right to vote.
    1793The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, falls to the Prussians.
    1803Irish patriots throughout the country rebel against Union with Great Britain.
    1829William A. Burt patents his "typographer," an early typewriter.
    1849German rebels in Baden capitulate to the Prussians.
    1863Bill Andeson and his Confederate Bushwackers gut the railway station at Renick, Missouri.
    1865William Booth founds the Salvation Army.
    1868The 14th Amendment is ratified, granting citizenship to African Americans.
    1885Ulysses S. Grant dies of throat cancer at the age of 63.
    1894Japanese troops take over the Korean imperial palace.
    1903The Ford Motor Company sells its first automobile, the Model A.
    1944Soviet troops take Lublin, Poland as the German army retreats.
    1962The Geneva Conference on Laos forbids the United States to invade eastern Laos.
    1995Two astronomers, Alan Hale in New Mexico and Thomas Bopp in Arizona, almost simultaneouly discover a comet.

    Born on July 23

    1834James Gibbons, American religious leader and founder of Catholic University.
    1886Arthur Whitten Brown, British aviator.
    1888Raymond Chandler, detective writer, creator of Philip Marlow.
    1891Haile Selassi, Emperor of Ethiopia.
    1906Marston Bates, American zoologist, author (The Nature of Natural History).
    1939Nicholas Gage, journalist and author (Eleni).
    1940John Nichols, novelist and essayist (The Milagro Beanfield War).
    1944Lisa Alther, novelist (Kinflicks).