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    July 21 in History

    1403Henry IV defeats the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England.
    1667The Peace of Breda ends the Second Anglo-Dutch War and cedes Dutch New Amsterdam to the English.
    1711Russia and Turkey sign the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.
    1718The Treaty of Passarowitz is signed by Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
    1773Pope Clement XIV abolishes the Jesuit order.
    1798Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Arab Mameluke warriors at the Battle of the Pyramids.
    1861In the first major battle of the Civil War, Confederate forces defeat the Union Army along Bull Run near Manassas Junction, Virginia. The battle becomes known as Manassas by the Confederates, while the Union calls it Bull Run.
    1865Wild Bill Hickok kills gunman Dave Tutt in Springfield, Missouri, in what is regarded as the first formal quick-draw duel.
    1873The James Gang robs a train in Adair, Iowa.
    1896Mary Church Terrell founds the National Association of Colored Women in Washington, D.C.
    1906French Captain Alfred Dreyfus is vindicated of his earlier court-martial for spying for Germany.
    1919The British House of Lords ratifies the Versailles Treaty.
    1925John Scopes is found guilty for teaching evolution in Dayton, Tenn., and is fined $100.
    1941France accepts Japan’s demand for military control of Indochina.
    1944U.S. Army and Marine forces land on Guam in the Marianas.
    1954The French sign an armistice with the Viet Minh that ends the war but divides Vietnam into two countries.
    1960Sirimavo Bandaranaike becomes the first woman prime minister of Ceylon.

    Born on July 21

    1881Frederick Dick, physician.
    1899Hart Crane, poet (The Bridge).
    1899Ernest Hemingway, American novelist and short-story writer.
    1911Marshall McLuhan, communication theorist (The Medium is the Message).
    1920Isaac Stern, Russian-born violinist.
    1921Billy Taylor, jazz pianist.
    1933John Gardner, poet and novelist (Grendel, October Light).
    1943Tess Gallagher, American writer.
    1952Robin Williams, American comedian and actor.