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    July 12 in History

    1096Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reach Sofia in Hungary.
    1691William III defeats the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.
    1794British Admiral Lord Nelson loses his right eye at the siege of Calvi, in Corsica.
    1806The Confederation of the Rhine is established in Germany.
    1941Moscow is bombed by the German Luftwaffe for the first time.
    1954President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposes a highway modernization program, with costs to be shared by federal and state governments.
    1957The U.S. surgeon general, Leroy E. Burney, reports that there is a direct link between smoking and lung cancer.
    1974G. Gordon Liddy, John Ehrlichman and two others are convicted of conspiracy and perjury in connection with the Watergate scandal.
    1984Democratic presidential candidate Walter Mondale chooses Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate.

    Born on July 12

    100 BCGaius Julius Caesar, Roman general and statesman.
    1817Henry David Thoreau, essayist, naturalist and poet (Walden).
    1854George Eastman, photography pioneer.
    1884Amadeo Modigliani, Italian painter and sculptor.
    1895Kirsten Flagstad, Norwegian opera singer.
    1895R. Buckminster Fuller, architect and engineer.
    1904Pablo Neruda, Chilean poet and political activist (Residence on Earth).
    1908Milton Berle, comedian, actor.
    1917Andrew Wyeth, American painter.
    1934Van Cliburn, American concert pianist.
    1937Bill Cosby, comedian, actor.