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    July 2 in History

    1298An army under Albert of Austria defeats forces led by Adolf of Nassau.
    1625The Spanish army takes Breda, Spain, after nearly a year of siege.
    1644Oliver Cromwell crushes the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor.
    1747Marshall Saxe leads the French forces to victory over an Anglo-Dutch force under the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Lauffeld.
    1776The Continental Congress resolves with the Declaration of Independence that the American colonies “are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States.”
    1822Denmark Vesey is executed in Charleston, South Carolina, for planning a massive slave revolt.
    1858Czar Alexander II frees the serfs working on imperial lands.
    1863The Union left flank holds at Little Round Top during the Battle of Gettysburg.
    1881Charles J. Guiteau fatally wounds President James A. Garfield in Washington, D.C.
    1926Congress establishes the Army Air Corps.
    1937American aviation pioneer Amelia Earhart disappears in the Central Pacific during an attempt to fly around the world.
    1961Novelist Ernest Hemingway commits suicide at his home in Ketchum, Idaho.
    1964President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into law.
    1967The U.S. launches Operation Buffalo in Vietnam.
    1976North and South Vietnam are officially reunified.
    1980President Jimmy Carter reinstates draft registration for males 18 years of age.
    Born on July 2
    1489Thomas Cranmer, first Protestant archbishop of Cantebury (1533-1556).
    1877Hermann Hesse, German novelist and poet.
    1894Andre Kertesz, photographer.
    1900Tyrone Guthrie, English theater director.
    1908Thurgood Marshall, first African-American Supreme Court Justice.
    1916Barry Gray, radio talk show host.
    1918Robert Sarnoff, president of NBC.
    1926Medgar Evers, American civil rights activist.